2022-10-15   37301

Free Massless Scalar Quantum Fields

Articles 00980 and 30983 studied the model of a single free scalar quantum field with a nonzero single-particle mass (m>0). When m=0, the model acquires a new symmetry called a shift symmetry. This article introduces two versions of the model with m=0: one in which the shift symmetry is spontaneously broken, and one in which observables are required to be invariant under the shift symmetry.

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www.cphysics.org updated 2022-10-23