2022-10-23   77228

Introduction to States

A normalized positive linear functional – more concisely called a state – is the mathematical structure that quantum theory uses to assign probabilities to the various possible outcomes of a measurement, based on whatever we already know about the current status of the physical system. This article introduces the mathematical concept of a state. For motivation, Gleason's theorem and its relatives are briefly reviewed.

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www.cphysics.org updated 2023-11-12